Rice is the most important food for Filipinos and without it, many people will succumb due to hunger. Unlike in Western countries, our stomachs are not used for lighter foods like bread, potatoes, and other wheat-based foods.
Rice farming has been part of Filipino life and also other South East Asian countries from Indochina Peninsula down to Indonesia. In this article, we are going to give you some basic and a complete video explanation on how to farm rice for food sustainability.
What is rice or palay
Rice is a plant belonging to the family of weeds, which is one of the main food sources of more than half of the human population worldwide.
Rice cultivation is suitable in countries with low labor costs and rainy climates, as it requires a lot of labor and a lot of water for irrigation. It has enormous benefits to more than half of the world’s human population, particularly on the Asian continent.
Here in the Philippines, in most regions, rice cultivation is the main occupation of most people in rural barangays. As a result, many farmers and traders entered the business of planting, buying, and selling rice. This is good business because rice is really what people are looking for because it is eaten every day.
But what is the right way to plant rice?
- Planting rice is not random, it requires further planning because the investment or money you will need is large, depending on the size of the land you will farm.
- Rice is also difficult to plant, so it requires careful care from the beginning to the harvest.
- The land to be used for planting must also be carefully examined, it must be close to the irrigation system which will serve as irrigation for your rice.
- Pests and insects can also easily infest with rice. They can damage your crops and cause certain losses in just a short time.
Now that you know the things to consider when planting rice, let’s find out what are the right steps for planting rice.
- Plowing. Plow the soil once to a moderate depth (10-15 cm.)
- Harrowing. Rake the soil a week after plowing and repeat after a week.
- Flatification. Flatten the ground with a buffalo-towed pallet or hand tractor.
- Adjustment of dams. Clean and repair dams to close holes that could be waterways and rat infestations.
- Seedling selection. Choose an area in the paddy field away from shade and households that will be planted.
- Land preparation for seedlings. Build 300-400 sqm. to sow for 15-20 kg. seed for one hectare. One meter of seedbed is moderate and its length depends on the length of the press. Apply organic fertilizer in an amount of 1kg./sqm. to be healthy, it is easy to pull out the seedlings and reduce root damage.
- Seed preparation. Soak the seed in clean water for 24 hours. Change the water every 6 hours to prevent bone damage. Raise the seed, cover, keep wet and incubate for 24-36 hours.
- Propagation. Scatter the seeds in an amount of one handful (50 grams) per 1 sqm.
- Seedling care. Water the seedling after 2-3 days to a depth of 2-3 cm. Keep the seedling well watered until the day of uprooting. On the tenth day, spray 20-40 grams of urea per 1 sqm. or 8-16 kg. for 400 sqm. seed. It is important to guard the nursery against damage caused by rats, snails, birds, and lack of water.
Transplanting and fertilization
- Seedling aged 18-21 days is ready to be transplanted. Plant 1-2 seedlings per hill at a distance of 20 x 15 cm. when summer and 20 x 20 cm. when it rains.
- Do not cut the rice leaf as it will be the passage of disease-causing bacteria.
- Replant the missing hills within a week.
- Composting also depends on the number of crops and the type or variety of rice. Organic fertilizers or commercial fertilizers can also be used, according to the farmer’s wishes.
NOTE: This guide is only for one hectare of arable land. It needs to be adjusted, depending on the amount you are planting
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